These documents soon came to berecognized as Holy Scripture, of equal importance (or mor… Bruce Metzger paints the picture superbly (202), for what drove Eusebius to pay so much attention to the history of the Bible must have been: Eusebius' search for certainty as well as...the absence of any official declaration having an absolute value, such as a canon issued by a synod, or the collective agreement among churches or bishops. Even if accurate, there is another side of the story: the situation evident in Papias is that there is little regard for any written Gospels, in contrast with nearly complete faith in oral tradition, with little critical thought being applied. Heretical teachers arose who sowed in the Christian church the seeds of gnosticism. Eccl., 5.20: Clement of Alexandria, Strom., 7, p.757; Tertullian, against heretics, chap.30.36: against Marcion, 4.6, etc. It is always "the Gospel" and never any particular Gospel. Theophilus is important for a variety of reasons: he was the second, very shortly after Athenagoras (below), to explicitly mention the Trinity (Ad Autolycum 2.15); he may have composed his own harmony and commentary on the four Gospels chosen by Tatian; and he wrote books against Marcion and other heretics. Around 135 the Gnostic Basilides composed a mighty treatise called the Exigetica which, judging from quotes by critics, contained lengthy exegesis on Gospel stories like the Sermon on the Mount and the Rich Man and Lazarus (M 78-9). And to this day, Revelation is not included in the Syrian Bible. And this reference is most likely to a different, now lost, work. ), including 1 Timothy because it allowed the taking of wine, meat, and marriage. Although the story is not entirely vouched for even by Eusebius (he presents it only as something that "is said"), it no doubt contributed to the belief that Matthew had originally been composed in Hebrew. But I have condensed the … This remark of Papias thus could have become an inspiration for naming a certain Gospel after the same man. Moreover, Cyril declares that no other books are to be read, not even privately. The Formation of the Canon of the New Testament. Origen doubts the authenticity of 2 (and 3) John and 2 Peter, and in 245 A.D. admits some doubts about the author, not the validity, of the Epistle to the Hebrews (M 138), suggesting that it may have been written by Luke or Clement of Rome, not Paul--and for this he uses the evidence of significant differences in style and quality of language; but Origen's tutor, Clement of Alexandria, suggested it was originally written by Paul in Hebrew and translated into Greek by Luke or Clement. Thus it is possible, if not likely, that by 144 the Gospel of Luke had not yet received its name. 14-15). The Council of Laodicea (AD 363) concluded that only the Old Testament (along with the Apocrypha) and the twenty-seven books of the New Testament were to be read in the churches. In such a case, the decision behind the list was even less reflective or objective. Revelation, however, was not accepted into the Armenian Bible until c. 1200 A.D. when Archbishop Nerses arranged an Armenian Synod at Constantinople to introduce the text. But at least we now discover (perhaps), between 110 to 140 A.D., the first definite name of a Gospel author: Mark. Ignatius suffered martyrdom at Rome, A.D.107 or 116. The Syriac Doctrine of Addai (c. 400 A.D.) claims to record the oldest traditions of the Syrian church, and among these is the establishment of a canon: members of the church are to read only the Gospel (meaning the Diatessaron of Tatian), the Epistles of Paul (which are said to have been sent by Peter, from Rome), and the Book of Acts (which is said to have been sent by John the son of Zebedee, from Ephesus), and nothing else (M 113-4). Were accurately known order '' the Catholic biblical Quarterly 61:2, April,. Quotes the book of Enoch was rejected because it allowed the taking of wine meat... Conceded that the NT marcion 's canon influenced the final category of texts includes those universally as... Must keep in mind that he is also infamous for saying that it was necessary to lie the... Sunday School Union, Philadelphia, Pa problem little dealt-with by any church authority an... 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