2014). "The planting of field pennycress doesn't affect soybean yield, which is a good thing," Moser said. Many materials can be made available in alternative formats for ADA clients. Carefully digging individual plants can manage the population, but may also carry weed seed to the soil surface and encourage additional germination. [15] Use as a source of biodiesel[edit] Mowing or tilling prior to seed production will control this plant but timing is essential because it produces seed much earlier than crops are harvested. Production requires few input… Click on a poster image to download a PDF, IPREFER is a team of academic researchers, extension/outreach specialists, agricultural producers and commercial interests working to optimize off-season pennycress oilseed production. Equipment needed, including a no-till drill or access to an aerial applicator, combine harvester and wagons for transportation, is similar to the needs other small-seeded grain or oilseed crops. In the field now. The commercial interest in field pennycress comes from the oil content of the seed, which ranges from 26 to 40 percent. Simply chew and apply to affected area. As an industry leader in the development of field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.), Arvegenix, a renewable fuel company in St. Louis, Mo., has made tremendous strides during the past few years in turning pennycress into a biofuel. Another pennycress species found in the United States is alpine pennycress. Pennycress matures in ea… Post Doctoral Research Associate, Kansas State University, Cody Hoerning, Research Assistant, Dept. Identifying Characteristics. It is hardy to zone (UK) 6 and is not frost tender. It is also known as the stinkweed due to its unpleasant smell. Also planting pennycress on Sept. 14 was Cris Handel, vice president of Strategy & Operations for CoverCress Inc., a company … Field pennycress is a diploid species of the Brassicaceae family and is closely related to the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Leaves have lobes at the base where they clasp the stem. The benefits of using pennycress include protecting the soil over the winter and early spring to reduce soil erosion, nutrient loss, and weed infestations as well as producing oil that can be used as a biofuel feedstock (Johnson et al. We use an approach that allows for parallel assessment of genotypes and fatty acid composition on a small single seed of field pennycress. Foto n. 26373 - field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) Jan Kops et al. Integration of field pennycress and camelina in a field corn production system. These accessions have been used as parents to develop 49 breeding populations being evaluated for traits such as earliness, winter hardiness, germination, yield, total oil and glucosinolate content. The seedmeal offers potential as a biofumigant and/or fertilizer for high-value horticultural crops for both conventional and organic growers. To successfully test objective one, corn stover gradients were achieved by removing a portion of the stover. M. David Marks - University of MinnesotaCoPI Donald Wyse - University of MinnesotaCoPI James Anderson - University of MinnesotaCoPI John Sedbrook - Illinois State UniversityCoPI Winthrop Phippen - Western Illinois UniversityBrief Description: Mutation based (non-GMO) approaches to generate pennycress varieties with desirable phenotypes such as increased yield, reduced dormancy, early maturing, enhanced oil production, more nectar, etc. Sedbrook’s new breeding lines can go directly into Phippen’s lines to further improve pennycress for commercialization. The pennycress genome and transcriptome have been sequenced by the Marks Lab at the University of Minnesota (Dorn et al. Both the seed and the young shoots are said to be good for the eyes. Some domesticated pennycress varieties can yield more than 1,500 pounds per acre of seeds, producing the potential for 65 gallons of oil per acre that can be converted into biodiesel and bio jet fuel. The seeds are used in Tibetan medicine and are considered to have an acrid taste and a cooling potency. In most states it is not a weed of concern but is has invasive potential in disturbed areas. Field pennycress is primarily a winter annual weed of winter small grains, nurseries and horticultural crops that is found throughout the United States. Partially Funded by USDA Rural Development. The broad oval-shaped fruits with an indented tip and that are compressed perpendicular to the septum, combined with glabrous herbage and lanceolate serrate clasping leaves, readily distinguish this … Farmers wanting to grow pennycress may have the opportunity in the future to contract with a processor. Botanical description: Thlaspi arvense is an erect, annual herb (Holm et al., 1997; NRCS, 2014). Hand-pulling and disposal of plants is an effective method of control with this weed. of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, Axel Garcia y Garcia, Assistant Professor, Dept. Preferred common name is field pennycress (CABI, 2014). contains up to 38 percent erucic and 22 percent linoleic fatty acids. This last name was given to the species because of the offensive odour released when young plants are crushed. Field pennycress is a common Eurasian weed that occurs throughout North America. Magnification: x22 … Range : Europe, including Britain, from Norway south and east to N. Africa, W. Asia, Siberia and Japan. The USDA along with BMI even experimented with planting pennycress into a young corn field this spring in order to minimize the number of times the farmer goes into the field. The objectives are to i) determine optimal corn stover removal rates and subsequent impacts to soil carbon and oilseed productivity, ii) assess the role planting date and seed dormancy plays in establishment and yield for both the oilseeds and subsequent soybean yield along with providing critical information to the breeding/genetics researchers for future directions. USDA and University of Maryland researchers found that this species of pennycress can remove cadmium and zinc metals from soil. can be crushed and the oil extracted using the cold press method, rather than hexane extraction. Pennycress Could Go from Nuisance Weed to New Source of Biofuel, USDA, Extraction of Proteins from Pennycress Seeds, Preparation, Composition and Functional Properties of Pennycress See Protein Isolates, USDA, Soybean Seed Yield and Quality as a Response to Field Pennycress Residue, The Pennycress Resource Network, University of Western Illinois, USDA, USDA ARS North Central Regional Plant Introduction Station. Projected nutrient removal for a crop is 50 lbs/A nitrogen, 20 lbs/ A phosphorus, and 20 lbs/A potassium. They can be added in small quantities to salads and other foods. Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) is a winter annual oilseed crop that is being domesticated to fit into Minnesota’s conventional agricultural system. Pennycress Could Go from Nuisance Weed to New Source of Biofuel, Preparation, Composition and Functional Properties of Pennycress See Protein Isolates, Acidifying soil helps plant remove cadmium, zinc metals. Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) oil is evaluated for the first time as a feedstock for biodiesel production. Round flat notched fruit, small white flowers, and turnip odor. We were able to show that fatty acid values predicted from a single seed are similar to the values of pooled seeds for linoleic acid (17.32% vs 18.10%), linolenic acid (11.10% vs 11.86%) and erucic acid (38.43% vs 38.74%) with the exception of … Usually ships within 3 to 5 weeks. Webmaster: Jane Jewett | jewet006@umn.edu, Field pennycress is a diploid species of the Brassicaceae family and is closely related to the model plant. Forty-six winter annual pennycress accessions were evaluated in 2014 and 2015 at multiple locations across Minnesota. No herbicides, insecticides, or fungicides are recommended for production. The seed meal, due to high amounts, of glucosinolates, cannot be used for human food or fed directly to livestock without further processing. Plants, from pennycress to willow, have potential to cleanup polluted soils, researchers are finding; Chronicle Online; Cornell University; 2007. Field pennycress is a nonedible, winter annual weed, widely distributed throughout every state in America except Hawaii. Besides being able to convert pennycress into fuel, ground-up pennycress seed can be eaten by animals as well as people. Seeding rate is 10-13 lbs per acre. The auricles at the base of the leaf are pointed. The cost of the remediation method, called “phytoextraction,” was about $250 to $1,000 per acre per year, cheaper than other methods of soil reclamation. overview; data; media; articles; maps; names Thlaspi arvense (field pennycress); habit, showing fruits and flowers. Pennycress seed (A), the plant in its basal rosette form (B), mid flowering stage (C) and its seed pods just prior to senescence (C). Award amount $1,000,000 Title: Advancing: Field Pennycress as a New Oilseed Biodiesel Feedstock that does not Require New Land CommitmentsPI. The Pennycress Resource Network is a website dedicated to disseminating information regarding the development, advancement, and commercialization of field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) as a viable industrial crop in the US. of Plant Biology, David Marks, Professor, Dept. All rights reserved. Field pennycress, Thlaspi arvense is an edible plant used in salads. Field pennycress can occur in all soil types, but appears to prefer moist places. One challenge of growing pennycress between corn and soybeans is the window for planting is small, Sedbrook said. Field pennycress seed has shown promise as a source of oil for biodiesel, as well as meal to use as a biological herbicide, said Kwesi Ampong-Nyarko, research scientist with Alberta Agriculture. Processors will have access to improved seed varieties. Management of field pennycress for oilseed production is very similar to that for winter small grains. Thus, pennycress could grow in winter, when the ground is normally lying fallow. Processing has been tested that results in protein isolates from the seed meal suitable for human food and non-food industrial uses. Stems erect, usually branched, 15–60 cm. 2015, Sedbrook et al. Pennycress Harvest video shot and edited by Karl Nord. A winter annual belonging to the mustard family, pennycress has been examined and researched by the U.S. Department […] Leaves basal and cauline; the basal withering early; the cauline oblanceolate, 15–55 mm long, petiolate below, auriculate and clasping above, entire to dentate. Pyrolysis of the defatted seed meal can yield aviation fuel. Student in Applied Plant Sciences, Jim Anderson, Professor, Dept. To be on the safe side, consult a trained herbalist for internal use. FIELD PENNYCRESS A potential new short season winter annual oil seed crop for use in corn/soybean rotations Overview Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) is a new, extremely winter hardy oilseed cash cover crop that can improve soil and water quality being … 2014). Wild Edible Field Pennycress, Thlaspi arvense (Peppery Seeds) This past summer I was so excited because I stumbled upon some wild edible pennycress right out back on our lil’ homestead. Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense) is native to Europe and has been transplanted to North America. Following oil extraction, the remaining seed meal contains 32 to 35% protein, some fat and carbohydrate. To generate a draft genome, a hybrid sequencing approach was used to generate 47 Gb of DNA … of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, Gabe Gusmini, Research Director, PepsiCo, University of Minnesota, Cody Hoerning, Research Assistant, Dept. Unlike field pennycress, the pods of the alpine pennycress do not resemble pennies; they are more heart-shaped. Where production costs differ from small grains are for: seed, fertility removal, and land costs. Funding Source: Clean Water Fund. The high level of glucosinolates, however contributes to biofumigant qualities of the defatted seed meal. Around the world, pennycress is a familiar plant, and it’s often considered a weed. Alpine pennycress is known to absorb heavy metals. Image is from a poster presented by Flipp et al. Two planting dates were used to determine the impact on yields when planted in early September compared with planting later in October. Thlaspi arvense | Field pennycress | Edible Uses Gallery botanic View photos of the edible plant Thlaspi arvense (Field pennycress), profiled in the Wild Edible Series: … Phippen is producing the seed to be used by other researchers in Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin and Minnesota. This species is a prolific seeder producing up to 15,000 seeds per plant, and forms a long-lived (up to 20-30 years) seedbank, making it difficult to eradicate from an area once a population become established. Field pennycress is primarily a winter annual weed of winter small grains, nurseries and horticultural crops that is found throughout the United States. The plant is mentioned in the law of 1734: “Let he who throws wild oats, field pennycress or any other weed into a neighbour’s field lose his honour and be fined… and pay compensation for damage”. Field pennycress oil exhibited the most desirable low temperature fluidity, as indicated by CP and PP values of −25 and −28 °C versus −7 and −9 °C for soybean oil and 3 and −11 °C for cress oil. Kayla Altendorf, Research Assistant, M.S. While many of us view the plant as a nuisance farmers growing pennycress can effectively increase farm revenues by 25 – 30% by growing the herb as an overwinter crop. This article was most recently revised and updated by Melissa Petruzzello, Assistant Editor. In conjunction with Forcella et al. Improvement of Field Pennycress Germplasm for use as a Winter Annual Cover and Oilseed Crop. Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1 . Even the young leaves have a somewhat bitter flavor and aroma, and are not to everyone's taste. Pennycress seeds are planted in late August-early September, germinate and develop into a rosette form (see Figure 1B). Seed meal can be further processed to yield aviation fuel. Washington State University researchers are looking into ways to maximize this plant as a revenue-making cover crop. In addition to its use as a biofuel, pennycress provides ground cover to reduce soil erosion and can absorb excess fertilizer to prevent pollution. It may be used as a salad leaf, but can be poisonous to livestock. Pennycress Harvest, June 2016, University of Minnesota, Forever Green. It is said to have a distinctive flavour. The University of Minnesota Pennycress breeding program began in 2013 with the goal of developing high yielding, non-shattering, and high germination varieties. of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, Rebekah Carlson, Research Assistant, Dept. of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, Evan Johnson, Laboratory Technician, Dept. Medicinal use of Pennycress: Antirheumatic, diuretic. Commercial production as a crop will require improved seed varieties, compared to the weedy biotypes. of Agronomy and Plant Genetics, Winthrop Phippen, Professor of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Western Illinois University, John Sedbrook, Associate Professor of Genetics, Illinois State University, Donald Wyse, Professor, Dept. The concept of planting field pennycress solely as a cover crop is being researched in Minnesota for both soil quality and nutrient sequestration and for benefits to honeybees. Some pennycress varieties can yield 65 gallons of oil per acre, which can be converted into jet fuel. Seed meal can be further processed to yield aviation fuel. The species Thlapsi arvense, in the mustard family (Brassicaceae) is a summer or winter annual that grows 1 to 2 feet tall.It is a common agricultural weed that prefers … Thlaspi arvense Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Clade: Tracheophytes Clade: Angiosperms Clade: Eudicots Clade: Rosids Order: Brassicales Family: Brassicaceae Genus: Thlaspi Species: T. arvense Binomial name Thlaspi arvense L. Thlaspi arvense, known by the common name field pennycress, is a flowering plant in the cabbage family Brassicaceae. This relationship will allow University breeders to quickly and efficiently domesticate pennycress based on the knowledge of genes that control undesirable traits such as shattering in Arabidopsis. Like most of the other introduced members of this family, it grows in abundance. Award Amount: $215,930 . , Ag Research Service (ARS), USDA, 2005 - Researchers found that increasing soil acidity can maximize the ability of alpine pennycress to remove cadmium and zinc metals from soil. Botanical description: Thlaspi arvense is an erect, annual herb (Holm et al., 1997; NRCS, 2014). The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees, flies. It starts out as a rosette of leaves, but then becomes an erect flowering stem (Uva et al., 1997), growing 18 to 80 cm tall Glabrous, taprooted annual. Pennycress, Field pennycress: Family: Brassicaceae or Cruciferae: USDA hardiness: 5-9: Known Hazards: None known: Habitats: Waste places and a weed of cultivated ground where it can be a serious pest[1, 13, 17]. The egg-shaped leaves of the basal rosette are absent by maturity. Funding Source: Clean Water Fund. Beyond determining the agronomic practices that increase the profitability and sustainability of Minnesota farmers, this project was designed to strengthen linkages between breeding/genetics and crop production faculty by providing a field orientated context to test and exchange ideas, along with offering interdisciplinary training to our graduate students. © 2020 Ag Marketing Resource Center. Wild Edible Field Pennycress, Thlaspi arvense (Peppery Seeds) This past summer I was so excited because I stumbled upon some wild edible pennycress right out back on our lil’ homestead. Oilseed growth characteristics will be assessed throughout the season along with measuring soil organic C which provides an indirect assessment of soil health. Field pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) oil is evaluated for the first time as a feedstock for biodiesel production. 2015). Its seeds have a high oil content, and the species has gained interest as a potential feedstock for biofuel production. Some of the more positive field pennycress facts reveal the plant has twice as much oil as soybeans, helps control some pests and reduces nitrogen run-off. Improvement of Field Pennycress Germplasm for use as a Winter Annual Cover and Oilseed Crop. The species Thlapsi arvense, in the mustard family (Brassicaceae) is a summer or winter annual that grows 1 to 2 feet tall. A native of Eurasia, pennycress was brought to America in 1701 and has adapted to a wide variety of climates.i It is a member of the Brassicaceae family and is also known as Frenchweed, stinkweed or fanweed. at the Green Lands Blue Waters conference in November 2013. Their seeds are sometimes used as a spice, mostly for meat.. Photo about brassicaceae, farm, fresh - 176550634 of Plant Biology, Lance Miller, Research Assistant, Dept. The plant has small, arrow-shaped leaves that end in tiny white flowers. Photo Credit: Kayla Altendorf. Thlaspi arvense is a ANNUAL growing to 0.6 m (2ft). Part of the growing interest in the crop potential of field pennycress is that it can be grown in parts of the cornbelt in the fall, winter, and spring, ‘sandwiched’ between corn and soybean crops. , cannot be used for human food or fed directly to livestock without further processing. Seed meal remaining from biodiesel production has several potential uses. Thlaspi, or pennycress, is a genus of herbs of temperate regions of the Eurasian continent. It's potential as a feedstock oil for the production of biodiesel is tremendous. Edible uses[edit] The field pennycress has a bitter taste; it is usually parboiled to remove the bitter taste. Biodiesel from field pennycress oil performs better at lower temperatures than biodiesel made from soybean oil. Medicinal Uses of Field Pennycress. Its seeds, however, could be a source of oil to use as biodiesel or jet fuel. Not only could selling the oilseeds be financially beneficial, but winter pennycress fields might also help prevent nutrient leaching and soil erosion, and out-compete (other) pesky weeds. There are currently no commercial processors of field pennycress in the U.S. 2015, Sedbrook et al. Field pennycress may go from weed to "wonderfuel," thanks to studies by Agricultural Research Service (ARS) scientists in Peoria, Ill. They do recommend it as a leaf poultice for bug bites and stings. Photo Credit: Kayla Altendorf. Medicinal use of Pennycress: Antirheumatic, diuretic. - Flora Batava - Permission granted to use under GFDL by Kurt Stueber. Basal leaves do not remain when the plant matures and the seed stem is produced. The flowering lasts from May to September and the fruiting takes place from March to April. A genome sequence will enable the use of new technologies to make improvements in pennycress. He and his graduate students were planting pennycress on fields in Normal in early September before corn harvest had begun. Next. Figure 1: Pennycress seed (A), the plant in its basal rosette form (B), mid flowering stage (C) and its seed pods just prior to senescence (C). Seed can also be not-till drilled following corn harvest, but this is usually too late to establish a viable crop stand. Based on these results, it is expected that field pennycress oil would be better suited for industrial applications where sub-ambient conditions are prevalent. , oblong leaves, with toothed to smooth margins key is pressed and... That results in protein isolates from the seed and the young leaves field! Carlson, Research Assistant, Dept along with measuring soil organic C which provides an indirect assessment of soil.. Marks Lab at the base of the defatted seed meal, or fungicides are recommended production... 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Weed that prefers cultivated areas, rarely invading undisturbed natural habitats plants can manage the,., flies very similar to that for winter small grains on these results, grows. Revised and updated by Melissa Petruzzello, Assistant Professor, Dept 0.6 (... Recommend it as a salad leaf, but this is field pennycress does n't soybean... Said to be on the safe side, consult a trained herbalist for internal.... Jet fuel that for winter small grains, nurseries and horticultural crops both. And wasteland pennycress in the oil contains up to 38 percent erucic 22... For Oilseed production is very similar to that for winter small grains revenue-making crop... Is small, sedbrook said gained interest as a winter annual weed rosette, but this mostly... To early summer percent erucic and 22 percent linoleic fatty acids they should always be harvested the!, which can be aerially seeded into standing corn,, Director of Research, Agricultural Utilization Institute! Normal in early September compared with planting later in October, Ohio, Wisconsin and.! Weed as a biofumigant and/or fertilizer for high-value horticultural crops that is found in future... Pennycress varieties can yield 65 gallons of oil per acre, which can be eaten by animals as well people... Everyone 's taste Agronomy and plant Genetics, Rebekah Carlson, Research Assistant,.... Plant over winters in this stage, flowers and develops seeds in late August-early September, and! A potential feedstock for biodiesel production seed is in flower from may to July and! Preliminary estimate for a commercial production budget is provided here Europe, including Britain, from Norway and..., Agricultural Utilization Research Institute, USDA-National Institute of food and Agriculture ( USDA-NIFA...., but has an erect flowering stem change as Genetics improve and yields increase al., ;.